The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a political party in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.
The AIADMK also has a presence in other states including Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
AIADMK, which is in power in Tamil Nadu is the third largest party in the Lok Sabha.
This Dravidian party was founded by Puratchi Thalaivar, Ponmanachemmal M.G. Ramachandran who was fondly referred to by the people of Tamilnadu as MGR, in 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Since 1989, the AIADMK, after the demise of MGR has been led by Puratchi Thalaivi Selvi J Jayalalithaa who in turn was affectionately referred to as “AMMA” by the people of Tamilnadu. Coalitions headed by the party have won the elections to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly eight times, making it the most successful political outfit in the state’s history.
The party headquarters is in Royapettah, Chennai.
MGR Era (1972–1987)
The party was founded in 1972 as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by MGR, a veteran Tamil film star and a popular politician, as
a breakaway group of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK).
Later, the party leaders prefixed the All India (AI) tag before the party name. MGR used his fan base for building the party cadre. The AIADMK recruited more than 10 lakh members in just two months of its creation. The first victory of the AIADMK was in the Dindigul parliamentary by-election in 1973. It also won the Coimbatore assembly by-election a year later.
The DMK-led government was dismissed by a Central promulgation on corruption charges in, 1976. The AIADMK came to power in 1977 after trouncing DMK in the assembly elections. MGR was sworn in as the 7th Chief Minister of the state on 30 June, 1977. MGR remained in power for ten years .The party under his leadership won the assembly elections ,three times consecutively in 1977,1980 and 1984.
In 1979, AIADMK became the first Dravidian and Regional party to be part of the Union Cabinet, when two AIADMK MP’s, Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, joined the Charan Singh Ministry which was followed by the Morarji Desai-led Janata Party government of 1977-79.
In a massive reverse of fortunes for the DMK – Congress alliance, the AIADMK won a comfortable majority in the state assembly by winning 129 seats out of 234. Dr. MGR was sworn in as chief minister for the second time on 09.06.1980.
In 1984, even with MGR’s failing health and subsequent hospitalization abroad, the party won the assembly elections.
Many political historians considered MGR’s persona and charisma at that point of time as “infallible”, and a logical continuation of his on-screen “good boy” image, strengthened by his “near mythical status” in the minds of the masses.
Puratchi Thalaivar’s soul departed this earth on 24.12.1987.
Following the demise of the party’s founder,the AIADMK emerged into two groups– one under Janaki Ramachandran, wife of MGR and the other under AMMA.
Later,in 1989 the two groups were consolidated under the leadership of Puratchi Thalaivi “AMMA”
AMMA Era (1989 – Present)
The DMK government was dismissed in 1990 by the Central Government led by the Prime Minister, Chandra Shekhar, as the constitutional machinery in the state was pushed to abyss.
The AIADMK swept to power in the assembly elections of 1991 under the leadership of AMMA, who become the 2nd woman Chief Minister and the 10th Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Despite fabricated accusations, AMMA completed the full term of five years as Chief Minister which ended in 1996. In the 2001 Assembly Elections, the AIADMK-led alliance, consisting of the Congress, the Tamil Maanila Congress, the Left Front and the Pattali Makkal Katchi, regained power, winning 197 seats, with AIADMK winning 132 of them.
During her 2nd term in office, Chief Minister AMMA took many popular decisions such as banning of lottery tickets, restricting liquor and sand quarrying business to government agencies and banning tobacco product sales near schools and colleges.
She encouraged women to join the state police force by setting up all women-police stations and commissioning 150 women into the elite level police commandos in 2003, a first of its kind in India. They underwent the same training as their male counterparts, covering the handling of weapons, detection and disposal of bombs, driving, horse riding and adventure sports.
AMMA sent a special task force to the Satyamangalam forests in October 2004 to hunt down notorious sandalwood smuggler, Veerappan. The operation was successful as Veerappan was finally killed by the task force on 18.10.2004.
Corruption became rampant during the DMK regime from 2006 to 2011. The Himalayan 2G Spectrum Scam involving Karunanidhi’s daughter Kanimozhi and former Telecommunications Minister of the DMK, A. Raja causing the Exchequer a loss to the tune of Rs. 1.76 lakh crore came to light.Nepotism,also led to the defeat of DMK.
In the 2011 Tamil Nadu Legislative assembly election, the AIADMK and its alliance won 202 seats of the 234 seats. The AIADMK by itself won 150 seats.
AMMA was sworn in as Chief Minister for the 3rd time on 16.05.2011.
She was re-elected as Chief Minister on 19 May 2016 and took the oath as Chief Minister for the sixth time on 23 May 2016.
Our Guiding force: (Our Leaders)
Perarinjar was an Indian politician who served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, a state in South India, from 1967 to 1969. He was the first member of a Dravidian party to hold that post. He was well known for his oratorical skills and was an acclaimed writer in the Tamil language. He scripted and acted in several plays. Some of his plays were later made into movies. He was the first politician from the Dravidian parties to use Tamil cinema extensively for political propaganda. Born in a middle-class family, he first worked as a school teacher, then moved into the political scene of theMadras Presidency as a journalist. He edited several political journals and enrolled as a member of the Dravidar Kazhagam. As an ardent follower of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, he rose in stature as a prominent member of the party.
Various protests against the ruling Congress government took him to prison on several occasions; the last of which was during the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965. The agitation itself helped Annadurai to gain popular support for his party. His party won a landslide victory in the 1967 state elections. His cabinet was the youngest at that time in India. He legalised Self-respect marriages, enforced a two language policy (in preference to the three language formula in other southern states), implemented subsidies for rice, and renamed Madras State to Tamil Nadu.
Several institutions and organisations are named after him. A splinter party launched by M. G. Ramachandran in 1972 was named after him as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
Puratchi Thalaivar Dr.MGR
Puratchi Thalaivar M. G. R., was an Indian actor, director, producer, and politician who worked primarily in Tamil films and also served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu successively for three terms. MGR is a cultural icon in Tamil Nadu and is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors the Tamil film industry ever produced.
MGR was a member of the Congress Party till 1953. In 1953 MGR joined the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK) attracted by founder C.N.Annadurai. He became a vocal Tamil and Dravidian nationalist and prominent member of the DMK (“Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam” aka Dravidian Progressive Federation).MGR became a member of the state Legislative Council in 1962. He was first elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1967. After the death of his mentor, Annadurai, MGR became the treasurer of DMK in 1969 .
MGR observed that corruption had grown in the party after the demise of Annadurai and in a public meeting asked for the financial details of the party to be publicised, which enraged the leadership of DMK. Consequently, MGR was expelled from the party . He forcefully floated a new party named Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK), later renamed All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), the only powerful opponent of the DMK.
He became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on 30 June 1977, remaining in office till his death in 1987.
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma:
Puratchi Thalaivi Amma is an Indian politician and chief minister of Tamil Nadu . She was an actress before her entry into politics and appeared in 140 films which includes Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada films. She is the general secretary of All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). She is popularly referred to as Puratchi Thalaivi and Thanga Tharagai.
Puratchi thalaivi Amma completed her childhood education at Bishop Cotton Girls school and Sacred Heart Matriculation School (popularly known as Church Park Presentation Convent or Presentation Church Park Convent) in Chennai.She excelled at school and was offered a government scholarship to pursue further education. She won Gold State Award for coming first in 10th standard in not just her school but also in Tamil Nadu.She is fluent in several languages, including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Hindi, Malayalam and English.
Under the Guidance of Puratchi Thalaivar MGR, she entered Politics in the year 1982 and become an AIADMK Member. In1983 she was appointed as the Party’s Propaganda Secretary. She campaigned in support of the party’s candidate who was contesting the Thiruchendur By – election.
By plunging in to the fray she shattered all the impediments and attained victory for the party Candidate. From 1984 till 1989 she served as the member of the Rajya Sabha.
Later,she was elected as Tamil Nadu Legislative Member from Bodinayakanur.
In 1984,owing to illhealth, Puratchi Thalaivar MGR was admitted to a hospital in USA. The same year in December the party had to face both LokSabha and Legislative Assembly elections together.
As Puratchi Thalaivar MGR was unable to go on a whirlwind campaign in support of the party candidates, Ms. Jayalalithaa took up this crucial role .
In 1989,AIADMK witnessed a resounding victory in the Lok Sabha Election both in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry.
Later in ,1991 the state had to face assembly election and AIADMK under the able guidance of AMMA swept victory in 225 constituencies of the total 234. She contested from both Bargur and Kangeyam constituencies during the general elections to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1991 and won in both places but subsequently resigned the Kangeyam Assembly seat.
Again in 1991 Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry had to face the Lok Sabha General Elections. AIADMK with the support of few friendly parties secured 40 seats in both Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry.
AIADMK under the aegis of Puratchi Thalaivi Ammamade a remarkable come back in the 2011 Legislative Elections with a resounding victory over the DMK and Congress alliance. Fed up with the corruption and violation orchestrated by the DMK, the people of Tamil Nadu rose to the occasion and voted in large numbers for the AIADMK party.AIADMK coalition headed by AMMA won 195 seats of the total 234. AIADMK alone secured 132 constituencies and formed the Government. AMMA was sworn in as Chief Minister for the second time on 14.5.2001. AMMA was elected from Andipatti constituency.
In the 2006 assembly election to Tamil Nadu, the AIADMK coalition secured 68 seats. AMMA became the Opposition Leader in Tamil Nadu Assembly.
The 2011 Tamil Nadu Assembly General Election ensured the landslide victory of the AIADMK combined coalition, which trounced the DMK .The AIADMK coalition together secured 203 seats. AIADMK bagged 150 seats to form the Government with complete majority. AMMA etched success in Srirangam Constituency from where she contested. Puratchi Thalaive Amma adorned the seat of chief minister for the third time on 16.05.2011 .
In 2011 Municipal Elections and Co-operative Society Elections AIADMK attained landslide victory. In the 2014 Lok sabha elections AIADMK won 37 out of 39 constituencies.
The 2016 assembly election once again ensured the emphatic win of AIADMK and Purtachi Thalaivi Amma continued as the chief minister of Tamil Nadu for the 6th term.
- Never to favour ethnic exclusion.
- The AIADMK sought to depoliticize the educational policy of the government by not insisting on the medium of education to be Tamil language.
- Policies of the AIADMK were targeted towards the poorer segments of Tamil society – poor, rickshaw pullers, and destitute women and centralizing the massive Nutritious Noon Meal Scheme for children.
- There should be an ambivalent approach towards the reservation policy and interest of farmers.
- Populist schemes should be developed targeting the human development index of the state.
Expansion beyond Tamil Nadu and Puducherry
Under AMMA’s resourceful guidance, AIADMK has spread its wings beyond Tamil Nadu and Puducherry and state units have been established in the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The party floated 54 candidates across the state of Kerala in the 2006 assembly election and had contested on its own.
In Karnataka the party had members in the state assembly and has influence in the Tamil-speaking areas of Bangalore and Kolar district. AIADMK has its following in various other places like Mumbai and Delhi. There are also units in various countries where the Tamil population has spread out.